The Origin and Evolution of Ṣūfīism in Islamic Perspective

1. Kishwer Naheed,
M.Phil Scholar,
Department of Islamic Studies,
Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi

2. Dr. Shahzadi Pakeeza,
Assistant Professor,
HoD, Department of Islamic Studies,
Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi


Ṣūfīsm is an esoteric part of Islam. Ṣūfīsm is the spirit of Islam. Ṣūfīsm is a source of social equality and brotherhood. In the early period of Islam, political and social conditions after the caliphate era led many Muslims to turn to adopt asceticism and a life of seclusion to seek peace of soul. They started adopting various spiritual practices over and above Shariah, known as Tariqat (the path). They considered following Shariat and Tariqat essential to reach the Haqiqat (the Truth). This research highlighted the concept and significance of Sufism following the Qur’ān, hadith and the authentic books of sūfīs. This research aims to explain the history and development of the Ṣūfīsm in Islam. This research is descriptive and clarified the significant and necessary knowledge about Ṣūfīsm. Different Evolution Phases as given by Muslim Scholars are explained to illustrate the paths and phases as adopted by Sufis in different centuries. The levels and stages and paths of Ṣūfīsm are also elaborated to highlight the evolutionary stages of Tassawuf. Ṣūfīsm is the journey of the inner self. Practices of Ṣūfīsm and the orders of Sufis are also illustrated in detail. The study showed that is necessary that not only people get control over self -wishes but also consciously overcome personal rightful needs for the betterment of society. This research concludes that there is no Sufism without Islam because Sufism is the heart of the religion Islam. Sufism maintained a clear line of direct transmission of wisdom back to original Islam. It is a movement that aims at making people good and better Muslims. The findings of this research indicate that spirituality is part of religion. It helps to find out the real purpose of human life.

Keywords: Ṣūfīsm, Shariat, Tariqat, Levels of Ṣūfīs, Spiritual Journey, Ṣūfī Orders